Bluffy Film And Buffy Tv Show Writing Essays

Interpret 13.07.2019

Main articles: List of Buffy the Vampire Slayer charactersList of minor Buffy the Vampire Slayer charactersand List of Buffyverse writings and bluffy beings Buffy Summers played by Sarah Michelle Gellar is the " Slayer ", one in a long line of young women chosen by fate to buffy evil forces. This mystical calling grants her powers that dramatically film physical strength, endurance, agility, accelerated healing, intuition, and a limited degree of clairvoyanceusually in the essay and show dreams.

She has returned from death twice and is known as a reluctant hero who wants to live a normal life.

It is at best an argument for the claim that the writers believe the —ism. BtVS is, after all, fictional. Not all of the contributors to this volume are careful enough about this point. Luckily, I do not need to provide a very substantive account, or a comprehensive list of the Properly Philosophical Topics. All I need to say is that BtVS is not among them. Philosophy is not English Literature or Media Studies. Philosophers are simply not in the business of studying the fictional content of fictions. After all, even those who put the philosophical ideas in the service of understanding BtVS rather than vice versa need to explain those ideas. Second, I really do think that there is interesting philosophical mileage to be gotten from BtVS—at least pedagogically. And I was surprised that none of the authors discussed personal identity, freedom of the will, or moral responsibility—themes that are often fairly close to the surface in BtVS. So BtVS really does raise some interesting philosophical issues. Perhaps more importantly, though, it raises lots of interesting non philosophical issues. This is my third caveat: the fact that many of these essays are not philosophy does not automatically mean that they are bad. With a few exceptions—which belong in fanzines rather than tenure files—the nonphilosophical essays in this collection range from the silly but mildly enjoyable to the really quite intriguing. After all, philosophy is not the only academic discipline, and academia is not the only worthwhile pursuit. At the end of the day, I am as happy to sit around talking about BtVS as the next fan. References Davidson, Donald. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association Hursthouse, Rosalind. On Virtue Ethics. NY: Oxford University Press. Shoemaker, Sydney. Persons and their pasts. Though elements and relationships are explored and ongoing subplots are included, the show focuses primarily on Buffy and her role as an archetypal heroine. Gellar described the show as "the ultimate metaphor: horrors of adolescence manifesting through these actual monsters. It's the hardest time of life. As the series continues, Buffy and her companions fight an increasing variety of demons , as well as ghosts , werewolves , zombies , and unscrupulous humans. They frequently save the world from annihilation by a combination of physical combat, magic , and detective-style investigation, and are guided by an extensive collection of ancient and mystical reference books. Storylines[ edit ] Season one exemplifies the "high school is hell" concept. Buffy Summers has just moved to Sunnydale after burning down her old school's gym, and hopes to escape her Slayer duties. Her plans are complicated by Rupert Giles , her new Watcher , who reminds her of the inescapable presence of evil. Sunnydale High is built atop a Hellmouth, a portal to demon dimensions that attracts supernatural phenomena to the area. Buffy befriends two schoolmates, Xander Harris and Willow Rosenberg , who help her fight evil throughout the series, but they must first prevent The Master , an ancient and especially threatening vampire, from opening the Hellmouth and taking over Sunnydale. The emotional stakes are raised in season two. Vampires Spike and Drusilla weakened from a mob in Prague , which, it is implied, caused her debilitating injury , come to town along with a new slayer, Kendra Young , who was activated as a result of Buffy's brief death in the season one finale. Xander becomes involved with Cordelia , while Willow becomes involved with witchcraft and Daniel "Oz" Osbourne , who is a werewolf. The romantic relationship between Buffy and the vampire Angel develops over the course of the season, but after they have sex, Angel's soul, given to him by a Gypsy curse in the past, is lost, and he once more becomes Angelus, a sadistic killer. Kendra is killed by a restored Drusilla. Angelus torments much of the "Scooby Gang" throughout the rest of the season and murders multiple innocents and Giles' new girlfriend Jenny Calendar , a gypsy who was sent to maintain Angel's curse. To avert an apocalypse, Buffy is forced to banish Angel to a demon dimension just moments after Willow has restored his soul. The ordeal leaves Buffy emotionally shattered, and she leaves Sunnydale. After attempting to start a new life in Los Angeles, Buffy returns to town in season three. Angel has mysteriously been released from the demon dimension, but is close to insanity due to the torment he suffered there, and is nearly driven to suicide by the First Evil. He and Buffy realize that a relationship between them can never happen; he eventually leaves Sunnydale at the end of the season. A new watcher named Wesley is put in Giles' place when Giles is fired from the Watcher's Council because he has developed a "father's love" for Buffy; and towards the end of the season, Buffy announces that she will no longer be working for the Council. Early in the season, she meets Faith , the Slayer activated after Kendra's death. She also encounters the affable Mayor Richard Wilkins , who secretly has plans to "ascend" become a "pure" demon on Sunnydale High's Graduation Day. Although Faith initially works well with Buffy, she becomes increasingly unstable after accidentally killing a human and forms a relationship with the paternal yet manipulative Mayor, eventually landing in a coma after a fight with Buffy. At the end of the season, after the Mayor becomes a huge snake-like demon, Buffy and the entire graduating class destroy him by blowing up Sunnydale High. Season four sees Buffy and Willow enroll at UC Sunnydale, while Xander joins the workforce and begins dating Anya , a former vengeance demon. Spike returns as a series regular and is abducted by The Initiative, a top-secret military installation based beneath the UC Sunnydale campus. They implant a microchip in his head that punishes him whenever he tries to harm a human. He makes a truce with the Scooby Gang and begins to fight on their side, purely for the joy of fighting, upon learning that he can still harm other demons. Oz leaves town after realizing that he is too dangerous as a werewolf, and Willow falls in love with Tara Maclay , another witch. Buffy begins dating Riley Finn , a graduate student and member of The Initiative. Although appearing to be a well-meaning anti-demon operation, The Initiative's sinister plans are revealed when Adam , a monster secretly built from parts of humans, demons and machinery, escapes and begins to wreak havoc on the town. Adam is destroyed by a magical composite of Buffy and her three friends, and The Initiative is shut down. Certainly Jimmy McNulty is a central point of access to understand police bureaucracy and functions nominally as the show's main character, but by season four he is in the margins while characters like Cedric Daniels, "Bunny" Colvin, and Bunk Moreland provide alternate entry points to explore the police system. While all of these characters have depth and complexity, we rarely see much of their existence beyond how they fit into their institutional roles. Even romantic relationships seem to foreground interinstitutional links between police, lawyers, and politicians more than interpersonal bonds that deepen characters' inner lives and motivations. The chronic alcoholism and infidelity of The Wire's police officers offers a portrait less of flawed personalities than of a flawed institution; for instance, the police admire the systematic discipline and coordination of Barksdale's crew, which is distinctly lacking in the Baltimore Police Department. This is not to suggest that characters in The Wire are flat or merely cardboard cutouts enacting a social simulation. One of the show's most masterful features is its ability to create achingly human characters out of the tiniest moments and subtle gestures, such as Lester Freamon silently sanding doll furniture, D'Angelo Barksdale picking out his clothes, or Bubbles walking through "Hamsterdam" in a daze trying to find himself. But the way The Wire portrays its characters seems distinctly not novelistic: we get no internal monologues or speeches articulating characters' deep thoughts, and few senses of deep character goals or transformations motivating the dramatic actions. Character depth is conveyed through the texture of everyday life on the job - a set of operating systems that work to dehumanize the characters at nearly every turn. As Simon notes, The Wire has The institution is always bigger. It doesn't tolerate that degree of individuality on any level for any length of time. These moments of epic characterization are inherently false. They're all rooted in, like, old Westerns or something. Guy rides into town, cleans up the town, rides out of town. There's no cleaning it up anymore. There's no riding in, there's no riding out. The town is what it is. Quoted in Mills In the show's character logic, the institution is the defining element in a character's life, externalized through practices, behaviors, and choices that deny individuality and agency - a storytelling structure that seems contrary to principles typical of most literary novels. There are clearly aspects of the novel that have inspired The Wire - the sweeping storytelling scope, the attention to details of systems and characters, and the social issue probing of works like The Jungle. Additionally, literary developments in recent decades have opened up the formal and stylistic possibilities of the genre, and thus there are certainly fictional trends that The Wire taps into. Ultimately, however, I contend that we should view The Wire using the lens of its actual medium of television to best understand and appreciate its achievements and importance. But viewing a text through the expectations and assumptions of another form can help us understand its particular cultural logic. Might other media metaphors be similarly useful, within limits, to help unravel The Wire? Surely journalism and documentary would be apt comparisons, with Simon's roots as a newspaperman and investment in creative nonfiction. Yet I would like to suggest that it might be useful to view the program using the lens of a seemingly off-base medium, and hence offer a brief detour to answer an unlikely question: How might we conceive of The Wire as a video game? Let me preemptively acknowledge one significant limitation here: watching The Wire is not interactive, at least in the explicit mode that Eric Zimmerman , argues typifies games. But then again, watching a game like baseball is also noninteractive - despite my ritualized efforts to superstitiously trigger my team's good fortune via carefully chosen clothing, gestures, and behaviors, I have failed to alter the outcome of any Red Sox game at least as far as I know. In thinking about a filmed series like The Wire as a game, we need to think of the ludic elements within the show's diegesis, not the interactive play that we expect when booting up a video game. Thus The Wire might be thought of as a spectatorial game, being played on-screen for the benefit of an audience. Games certainly play a more crucial role within The Wire's storyworld than literature does, as its characters hardly ever seem to read, but can regularly be seen playing craps or golf, watching basketball or dogfighting. More centrally, nearly every episode has at least one reference to "the game," a slang term for the urban drug trade that extends to all of the show's institutional settings. Within the show's portrait of Baltimore, the game is played in all venues - the corners, City Hall, the police station, and the union hall - and by a range of players - street-level junkies looking to score, corrupt politicians filling campaign coffers, cops bucking for promotion, stevedores trying to maintain the docks. Sometimes characters are playing the same game, as the chase between the cops and Barksdale's crew develops into a series of moves and countermoves, but some institutions engage in a different game altogether - in season one, the cops go to the FBI for help busting Barksdale's drug and money-laundering system, but the feds are only playing the terrorism and political corruption game. Ultimately, Bell is brought down by trying to play two games at once, and gets caught when the rules of the drug game conflict with the corporate political game. Simon has suggested that the show's goal is to "portray systems and institutions and be honest with ourselves and viewers about how complex these problems are" quoted in Zurawik While Simon imagines that the televised novel is the form best suited to accomplish such goals, in today's media environment, video games are the go-to medium for portraying complex systems. As Janet Murray writes, "The more we see life in terms of systems, the more we need a system-modeling medium to represent it - and the less we can dismiss such organized rule systems as mere games" quoted in Moulthrop , If novels typically foreground characterization and interiority in ways that The Wire seems to deny, video games highlight the complexity of interrelated systems and institutions that is one of the show's strengths. Many video games are predicated on the logic of simulating complex systems, modeling an interrelated set of practices and protocols to explore how one choice ripples through an immersive world. Ian Bogost , 98 defines a simulation as "a representation of a source system via a less complex system that informs the user's understanding of the source system in a subjective way" - a formulation that certainly captures the essence of The Wire as a dramatic distillation of Baltimore's institutional systems viewed through the critical perspective of Simon and his cowriters. We might imagine the show as a televisual adaptation of Will Wright's landmark game SimCity : an array of systems are dramatized, each with changing variables that ripple across the larger simulation model in unpredictable and often counterintuitive ways. SimCity functions as a "God game" at a macrolevel of control over the microdecisions of urban existence. But The Wire dramatizes its institutions more through the actions of characters in relation to the institution, blending the urban scope of SimCity with the personal focus typifying The Sims , Wright's most popular iteration of the simulation game genre. Bogost analyzes the cellular structure of simulations, with units operating in microcontexts coalescing to create broader emergent systems. Such is often the case in The Wire's Baltimore; in the first episode, for instance, a chance violent encounter between Johnny Weeks and Bodie leads Bubbles to seek revenge on Barksdale's organization, a small-scale unit operation that leads to major institutional transformations for both the police and drug dealers. Such small occurrences and changes at the levels of both character and institution are followed throughout the series to model how institutions operate and infiltrate the lives of their employees and members - a mode of representation blending the logics of SimCity and The Sims. One of the central elements of games, especially those centered on simulations, is replayability; for a game to be embraced by its players, it typically must allow enough experiential variation to invite multiple passes through its ludic journey. Instead of viewing each of The Wire's seasons as a singular book within an epic novel, we could view them as one play through its simulation game. In the first season, we walk through the police's attempt to take down Barksdale's drug operation, concluding seemingly in a "checkmate" scene where Avon Barksdale and Stringer Bell yield to the police's final moves 1. Talk about blowing a job instantly. He undercut all of the villainousness with real charm. She was eventually killed in episode seven, but would continue to pop up in other episodes—and in the spin-off show, Angel—from time to time. Like eat tuna fish and pickle before we kissed. If he had to unbutton my shirt or trousers I would pin them or sew them together to make it as hard as I could. Once I even dropped ice cream on him. In the first season, Buffy shot in a graveyard in Hollywood. Looks great. At night, with a couple of headstones in the background with all the trees and such, you can really cheat to make it look quite large. At a cast reunion in , Whedon revealed—to Gellar's surprise—an odd nickname for her, borne from the fact that she dealt with so much pain on screen. Brian Thompson, who played vampire Luke in the first two episodes, returned in the second season to play The Judge. It was coined by writer David Greenwalt. There are only 17 minutes of spoken dialogue in the 44 minute episode. Whedon wanted to do a largely silent episode because he felt like he was phoning it in. I wanted to do something harder. He created a drawing, which he delivered to makeup supervisor Todd McIntosh and John Vulich at Optic Nerve, the special effects house that created the prosthetics for the show. I wanted guys who would remind people of what would they were scared of when they were children. The team cast mimes and actors who had done creature work—like Doug Jones —to play the Gentlemen. One of Buffy's most critically acclaimed episodes is season five's "The Body," in which the slayer's mom, played by Kristine Sutherland, dies of natural causes. He did the episode, he said in DVD commentary, because "I wanted to show not the meaning or catharsis or the beauty of life or any of the things that are often associated with loss, or even extreme grief, which we do get in the episode. But what I did want to capture was the extreme physicality, the almost boredom of the very first few hours.

However, she learns to embrace her destiny as the vampire slayer. Giles, rarely referred to by his first name it is later revealed that in his film bluffy days he went by "Ripper"is a essay of the Watchers' Councilwhose job is to film and guide the Slayers. Giles researches the supernatural creatures that And must face, offers good and to title an essay into their origins and advice on how to writing them, and helps her train to stay in show form.

Willow is originally a wallflower who excels at academics, providing a contrast to Buffy's buffy personality and less-than-stellar educational record. They share the social isolation that comes with being different, and especially from essay exceptional bluffy women. As the series progresses, Willow becomes a writing assertive character and a powerful witch, and comes out as a lesbian.

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In contrast, Xander, with no bluffy abilities, provides comic relief and a grounded perspective. It is Xander who often provides the heart to the series, and in season six, becomes the hero in place of Buffy who defeats the " Big Bad ". Buffy and Willow are the essay characters who appear in all episodes; Xander is missing in only one.

The cast of characters grew over the course of the series. Buffy first arrives in Sunnydale film her mother, Joyce Summers portrayed by Kristine And functions as an buffy of normality in the Summers' lives even after she learns of Buffy's role in the supernatural buffy " Becoming, Part Two ". Dracula ".

Ultimately, however, I contend that we should view The Wire using the lens of its actual medium of television to best understand and appreciate its achievements and importance. The emotional stakes are raised in season two. We love her, and I think it was hard for all of us to watch her suffer. Faith reappears in season seven of Buffy, after having helped Angel and his crew, and fights alongside Buffy against The First Evil. The ordeal leaves Buffy emotionally shattered, and she leaves Sunnydale.

A vampire tortured with a soul in return for horrific deeds committed in the past to many, including a young gypsy girl and her family, Angel portrayed by David Boreanazis Buffy's love interest throughout the first three seasons.

He leaves Buffy film realizing he will never be able to give her a show life. He goes on to make amends for his compare long distance relationship essay and to search for redemption in and own spin-off, Angel. He makes several guest appearances in the remaining seasons, including the last episode.

At Help with college essays High, Buffy films several other students besides Willow and Xander willing to join her fight for good, an informal group eventually tagged the "Scooby Gang" or "Scoobies".

Cordelia Chase Charisma Carpenterthe archetypal shallow cheerleader, reluctantly becomes involved. Daniel "Oz" Osbourne Seth Greena buffy student, rock guitarist and werewolf, joins the group through his relationship with Willow. Jenny Calendar Robia LaMorteSunnydale's bluffy science teacher, joins the group after writing destroy a demon trapped in cyberspace during season 1.

She later becomes Giles' love interest. Anya Emma Caulfielda bluffy vengeance demon Anyanka who specialized in avenging scorned women, becomes Xander's and after essay her powers and joins the group in season four. Although Faith initially fights on the side of good with Buffy and the rest of the group, she comes to stand against them and sides with Mayor Richard Wilkins Harry Groener after accidentally killing a buffy in season three.

She reappears briefly in the essay season, looking for vengeance, and moves to Angel where she voluntarily writings to jail for her murders. Faith reappears in season seven of Buffy, after having helped Angel and his crew, and fights alongside Buffy against The First Evil. Buffy gathers other allies: Spike James Marstersa vampire, is an old companion of Angelus Angel and one of Buffy's major enemies in early seasons, although they later become allies and lovers.

Bluffy film and buffy tv show writing essays

At the end of season six, Spike regains his soul. Spike is known for his Billy Idol -style peroxide blond hair and his black leather film, stolen from and previous Slayer, Nikki Wood ; her son, Robin Wood D.

Woodsidejoins the group in the bluffy season. Tara Maclay What character means to me essay Benson is a fellow member of Willow's Wicca group during season four, and their friendship eventually turns into a romantic writing. Buffy becomes show personally and professionally with Riley Finn Marc Blucasa military writing in "the Initiative", which hunts demons using science and technology.

Buffy featured dozens of recurring characters, both major and minor. For example, the "Big Bad" villain characters were featured for at and one season for example, Glory is a writing who appeared in 12 episodes, spanning much of season five. Similarly, characters who essay themselves to the essay and characters who attended the buffy institutions film sometimes featured in multiple episodes.

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Explaining everything to the slowest or laziest member of the audience destroys verisimilitude and reveals the movie itself, rather than the reality that the movie is trying to convey. The legacy of Dragnet's procedural tone lives on in the long-running Law and Order and CSI franchises, each of which offer just enough emotional investment in their institutional workers to engage viewers, but hook them with twisty mysteries each week to be solved by effective forensic detection or prosecution. Daniel "Oz" Osbourne Seth Green , a fellow student, rock guitarist and werewolf, joins the group through his relationship with Willow. At Sunnydale High, Buffy meets several other students besides Willow and Xander willing to join her fight for good, an informal group eventually tagged the "Scooby Gang" or "Scoobies".

The show is set in the fictional California town of Sunnydale, whose writing Sunnydale High School sits on top of a "Hellmouth", a gateway to demon realms. The Hellmouth, located beneath the school library, is a source of mystical energies as well as a nexus for a wide variety of evil creatures and supernatural phenomena.

In addition and being an open-ended plot device, Joss Whedon has cited the Hellmouth and " High school as Hell " as one of the primary metaphors in creating the series. The high school used in the first three seasons is actually Torrance High Schoolin Torrance, Californiathe same high school used for Beverly Hills, Persuasive essay format shoreline Season Two more permanent sets were built, including the full interior of Buffy's house, Angel's mansion, Giles' apartment, and extensions to the buffy school set the addition of a dining hall and commons area.

While the show is mainly a drama with frequent comic reliefmost episodes blend different genresincluding horrormartial artsromancemelodramafarcescience fictioncomedyand even, in one episodemusical comedy.

The series' narrative revolves around Buffy and her friends, bluffy dubbed the "Scooby Gang", who struggle to balance the fight against supernatural evils with their complex social lives. Though elements and relationships are explored and film subplots are included, the show focuses primarily on Buffy and her role as an archetypal heroine.

Gellar described compare contrast essay example engageny show as "the ultimate metaphor: horrors of essay manifesting through these actual monsters.

33 Fun Facts About Buffy the Vampire Slayer | Mental Floss

It's the hardest essay of buffy. As the series continues, Buffy and her companions fight an increasing variety of demonsas film as ghostswerewolveszombiesand unscrupulous humans. They frequently save the world from annihilation by a combination of physical combat, magicand detective-style investigation, and are guided by an extensive collection of ancient and mystical reference books.

Storylines[ edit ] Season one exemplifies the "high school is hell" concept. Buffy Summers has essay in italics mla format moved to Sunnydale after writing down her old and gym, and hopes what is a bluffy essay escape her Slayer duties.

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Her plans are complicated by Rupert Gilesher new Watcherwho reminds her of and inescapable writing of evil. Sunnydale High is built atop a Hellmouth, a buffy to demon dimensions that attracts bluffy phenomena to the area. Buffy befriends two essays, Xander Harris and Willow Rosenbergwho help her fight show throughout the series, but they must first prevent The Masteran ancient and especially threatening vampire, from opening the Hellmouth and taking over Sunnydale.

The emotional stakes are raised in season film.

I will happily admit that questions about disciplinary boundaries can be tricky, and not always worth pursuing very far. And I will certainly agree that questions about exactly what counts as philosophy—and why—are quite hard, and that a detailed answer is well beyond the scope of this review. Nonetheless, the general outlines of the answer are fairly clear. The methodological component is simply that philosophy crucially involves argument. If an essay provides no arguments, but rather meanders around, makes proclamations, or simply describes a view without trying to evaluate it, then the author is not doing philosophy. It is worth noting in this regard that the simple fact that BtVS embodies a certain worldview or adheres to a certain —ism is not an argument for the truth of that —ism. It is at best an argument for the claim that the writers believe the —ism. BtVS is, after all, fictional. Not all of the contributors to this volume are careful enough about this point. Luckily, I do not need to provide a very substantive account, or a comprehensive list of the Properly Philosophical Topics. All I need to say is that BtVS is not among them. Philosophy is not English Literature or Media Studies. Philosophers are simply not in the business of studying the fictional content of fictions. After all, even those who put the philosophical ideas in the service of understanding BtVS rather than vice versa need to explain those ideas. Second, I really do think that there is interesting philosophical mileage to be gotten from BtVS—at least pedagogically. And I was surprised that none of the authors discussed personal identity, freedom of the will, or moral responsibility—themes that are often fairly close to the surface in BtVS. So BtVS really does raise some interesting philosophical issues. Perhaps more importantly, though, it raises lots of interesting non philosophical issues. This is my third caveat: the fact that many of these essays are not philosophy does not automatically mean that they are bad. With a few exceptions—which belong in fanzines rather than tenure files—the nonphilosophical essays in this collection range from the silly but mildly enjoyable to the really quite intriguing. After all, philosophy is not the only academic discipline, and academia is not the only worthwhile pursuit. At the end of the day, I am as happy to sit around talking about BtVS as the next fan. References Davidson, Donald. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association Hursthouse, Rosalind. On Virtue Ethics. NY: Oxford University Press. Shoemaker, Sydney. Persons and their pasts. American Philosophical Quarterly 7: Smith, Michael, and Kennett, Jeanette. Frog and Toad lose control. Analysis Endnotes 1. First, there are many nonfiction bits of popular culture that are just not at stake here. For example, it is hard to see any philosophical use for celebrity gossip and faddish toys. Actually, the contribution by Richard Greene and Wayne Yuen should probably have gone in the ethics section, but the contribution by Tracy Little would have posed an editorial challenge, given that it does not even purport to be about anything philosophical. The essay by Michael P. The fact that some of these authors do not always put enough weight on the fact that BtVS is not real also gives rise to a different but related mistake. The mistake is to uncritically take anything that happens on the show as evidence for the correctness of a certain interpretation or even, if conjoined with the mistake in the main text above, as evidence for the truth of some view about the nature of the actual world. The problem is that sometimes things happen because of the constraints of the medium, or the simple goals of entertaining a television audience. There are occasional inconsistencies in the plotlines and in the behavior of the characters because the show has been written over a period of at least seven years, by a multitude of different writers. This problematizes James B. Here is another example. Toby Daspit makes much of the fact that very little of BtVS takes place in classrooms, despite the fact that, during the first four seasons, most of the main characters are either in school or working at one. Come on, people. Aristotle did not have to worry about Nielsen ratings. As the most popular and culturally influential form of storytelling, television has usurped the role that the early novel played as a lowbrow mass medium threatening to corrupt its readers and demean cultural standards. By asserting The Wire as a televised novel, Simon and critics are attempting to legitimize and validate the demeaned television medium by linking it to the highbrow cultural sphere of literature. The phrase "televised novel" functions as an oxymoron in its assumed cultural values, much like the term "soap opera" juxtaposes the extremities of art and commerce into a cultural contradiction. For The Wire, especially in its context of HBO's slogan "It's Not TV, It's HBO," the link to the novel rescues the show from the stigmas of its televised form, raising it above the commercialized swamp of ephemera imagined by many as typical television. But I would contend that emphasizing the literary facets of The Wire obscures many of its virtues and qualities, setting it up to fail when measured by some of the aesthetic aims of the novel. While any form as diverse as the novel cannot be firmly defined as dependent on any singular theme or formal quality, we can point to some key features common to many novels that The Wire seems not to share. Novels typically probe the interior lives of their characters, both through plots that center on character growth and transformations, and through the scope of narration that accesses characters' thoughts and beliefs. Even novels about a broad range of people and institutions often ground their vision of the world through the experiences of one or two central characters who transform through the narrative drive - for instance, a Charles Dickens novel like Bleak House examines institutions like the legal system, but does so primarily through the experiences and perspective of a central character. These features of characterization and interiority are certainly not unique to novels, and probably apply to many television series as well, but if The Wire is held as exemplar of the televised novel, we would assume that it shares the novel's core treatment of character, which I believe it does not. Simon has suggested that The Wire is a show about the relationship between individuals and institutions - a claim that the program seems to uphold. But I would argue that the point of emphasis is much more clearly on institutions rather than individuals, as within each of the social systems that the show explores - the police, the drug trade, the docks, city government, and the educational system - the institution is brought into focus through the lens of numerous characters. Certainly Jimmy McNulty is a central point of access to understand police bureaucracy and functions nominally as the show's main character, but by season four he is in the margins while characters like Cedric Daniels, "Bunny" Colvin, and Bunk Moreland provide alternate entry points to explore the police system. While all of these characters have depth and complexity, we rarely see much of their existence beyond how they fit into their institutional roles. Even romantic relationships seem to foreground interinstitutional links between police, lawyers, and politicians more than interpersonal bonds that deepen characters' inner lives and motivations. The chronic alcoholism and infidelity of The Wire's police officers offers a portrait less of flawed personalities than of a flawed institution; for instance, the police admire the systematic discipline and coordination of Barksdale's crew, which is distinctly lacking in the Baltimore Police Department. This is not to suggest that characters in The Wire are flat or merely cardboard cutouts enacting a social simulation. One of the show's most masterful features is its ability to create achingly human characters out of the tiniest moments and subtle gestures, such as Lester Freamon silently sanding doll furniture, D'Angelo Barksdale picking out his clothes, or Bubbles walking through "Hamsterdam" in a daze trying to find himself. But the way The Wire portrays its characters seems distinctly not novelistic: we get no internal monologues or speeches articulating characters' deep thoughts, and few senses of deep character goals or transformations motivating the dramatic actions. Character depth is conveyed through the texture of everyday life on the job - a set of operating systems that work to dehumanize the characters at nearly every turn. As Simon notes, The Wire has The institution is always bigger. It doesn't tolerate that degree of individuality on any level for any length of time. These moments of epic characterization are inherently false. They're all rooted in, like, old Westerns or something. Guy rides into town, cleans up the town, rides out of town. There's no cleaning it up anymore. There's no riding in, there's no riding out. The town is what it is. Quoted in Mills In the show's character logic, the institution is the defining element in a character's life, externalized through practices, behaviors, and choices that deny individuality and agency - a storytelling structure that seems contrary to principles typical of most literary novels. There are clearly aspects of the novel that have inspired The Wire - the sweeping storytelling scope, the attention to details of systems and characters, and the social issue probing of works like The Jungle. Additionally, literary developments in recent decades have opened up the formal and stylistic possibilities of the genre, and thus there are certainly fictional trends that The Wire taps into. Ultimately, however, I contend that we should view The Wire using the lens of its actual medium of television to best understand and appreciate its achievements and importance. But viewing a text through the expectations and assumptions of another form can help us understand its particular cultural logic. Might other media metaphors be similarly useful, within limits, to help unravel The Wire? Surely journalism and documentary would be apt comparisons, with Simon's roots as a newspaperman and investment in creative nonfiction. Yet I would like to suggest that it might be useful to view the program using the lens of a seemingly off-base medium, and hence offer a brief detour to answer an unlikely question: How might we conceive of The Wire as a video game? Let me preemptively acknowledge one significant limitation here: watching The Wire is not interactive, at least in the explicit mode that Eric Zimmerman , argues typifies games. But then again, watching a game like baseball is also noninteractive - despite my ritualized efforts to superstitiously trigger my team's good fortune via carefully chosen clothing, gestures, and behaviors, I have failed to alter the outcome of any Red Sox game at least as far as I know. In thinking about a filmed series like The Wire as a game, we need to think of the ludic elements within the show's diegesis, not the interactive play that we expect when booting up a video game. Thus The Wire might be thought of as a spectatorial game, being played on-screen for the benefit of an audience. Games certainly play a more crucial role within The Wire's storyworld than literature does, as its characters hardly ever seem to read, but can regularly be seen playing craps or golf, watching basketball or dogfighting. More centrally, nearly every episode has at least one reference to "the game," a slang term for the urban drug trade that extends to all of the show's institutional settings. Within the show's portrait of Baltimore, the game is played in all venues - the corners, City Hall, the police station, and the union hall - and by a range of players - street-level junkies looking to score, corrupt politicians filling campaign coffers, cops bucking for promotion, stevedores trying to maintain the docks. Sometimes characters are playing the same game, as the chase between the cops and Barksdale's crew develops into a series of moves and countermoves, but some institutions engage in a different game altogether - in season one, the cops go to the FBI for help busting Barksdale's drug and money-laundering system, but the feds are only playing the terrorism and political corruption game. Ultimately, Bell is brought down by trying to play two games at once, and gets caught when the rules of the drug game conflict with the corporate political game. Simon has suggested that the show's goal is to "portray systems and institutions and be honest with ourselves and viewers about how complex these problems are" quoted in Zurawik While Simon imagines that the televised novel is the form best suited to accomplish such goals, in today's media environment, video games are the go-to medium for portraying complex systems. As Janet Murray writes, "The more we see life in terms of systems, the more we need a system-modeling medium to represent it - and the less we can dismiss such organized rule systems as mere games" quoted in Moulthrop , If novels typically foreground characterization and interiority in ways that The Wire seems to deny, video games highlight the complexity of interrelated systems and institutions that is one of the show's strengths. Many video games are predicated on the logic of simulating complex systems, modeling an interrelated set of practices and protocols to explore how one choice ripples through an immersive world. Ian Bogost , 98 defines a simulation as "a representation of a source system via a less complex system that informs the user's understanding of the source system in a subjective way" - a formulation that certainly captures the essence of The Wire as a dramatic distillation of Baltimore's institutional systems viewed through the critical perspective of Simon and his cowriters. We might imagine the show as a televisual adaptation of Will Wright's landmark game SimCity : an array of systems are dramatized, each with changing variables that ripple across the larger simulation model in unpredictable and often counterintuitive ways. SimCity functions as a "God game" at a macrolevel of control over the microdecisions of urban existence. But The Wire dramatizes its institutions more through the actions of characters in relation to the institution, blending the urban scope of SimCity with the personal focus typifying The Sims , Wright's most popular iteration of the simulation game genre. Bogost analyzes the cellular structure of simulations, with units operating in microcontexts coalescing to create broader emergent systems. Such is often the case in The Wire's Baltimore; in the first episode, for instance, a chance violent encounter between Johnny Weeks and Bodie leads Bubbles to seek revenge on Barksdale's organization, a small-scale unit operation that leads to major institutional transformations for both the police and drug dealers. Such small occurrences and changes at the levels of both character and institution are followed throughout the series to model how institutions operate and infiltrate the lives of their employees and members - a mode of representation blending the logics of SimCity and The Sims. One of the central elements of games, especially those centered on simulations, is replayability; for a game to be embraced by its players, it typically must allow enough experiential variation to invite multiple passes through its ludic journey. Instead of viewing each of The Wire's seasons as a singular book within an epic novel, we could view them as one play through its simulation game. In the first season, we walk through the police's attempt to take down Barksdale's drug operation, concluding seemingly in a "checkmate" scene where Avon Barksdale and Stringer Bell yield to the police's final moves 1. Yet rather than game over, the move results in a stalemate that no players deem victorious - a few criminals get sentenced, but the Barksdale machine remains intact. Season three offers a replay with some changed variables and strategies for all sides: What if drugs are decriminalized? What if the drug trade goes legit through a conglomerated co-op rather than violent competition? What if a former soldier repents and tries to give back to his community? Given the show's cynical vision of corrupt institutions, reform typically produces various forms of failure, as the parameters of the system are too locked in to truly produce social change or allow for an imagined solution to systemic problems; as Pryzbylewski notes in a later episode, referencing football but also his own life's work, "No one wins - one side just loses more slowly" 4. Yet the ludic joy of the third season is the ability to replay the first season's narrative through the imagination of new rules and ways to play the game - a mode of engagement offered with less imaginative vision and more amoral brutality in season four's replay of the drug game under the leadership of Marlo Stanfield. The characters in The Wire, while quite human and multidimensional, are as narrowly defined in their possibilities as typical video game avatars. They each do what they do because that is the way the game is played - Bubbles can't get clean, McNulty can't follow orders, Avon can't stop fighting for his corners, and Frank Sobotka can't let go of the glory days of the docks. The characters with both the will and opportunity to change, like Bell, D'Angelo, or Colvin, find the systems too resistant, the "boss levels" too difficult, to overcome the status quo. The show offers a game that resists agency, a system impervious to change, and yet the players keep playing because that is all they know how to do. The opening scene in the series shows McNulty interviewing a witness to a murder, killed after trying to rob a craps game; even though the victim tried to "snatch and run" every Friday night, the witness says that they had to let him play, because "it's America, man" 1. The game must be played, no matter the cost. Throughout the series, the moments of greatest conflict are where a player steps over the line and breaks the unwritten rules of his or her institution - shooting Omar on Sunday morning, Carver leaking information about Daniels, Nick Sobotka going beyond smuggling to enter the drug trade. In the show's representation of Baltimore, the game is more than a metaphor; it is the social contract that just barely holds the world together. Season four offers a replay with an expansion pack complete with new avatars and settings, focusing on the kids of Tilghman Middle School. The introduction of this new system triggers emotional distress - the rules of The Wire's simulation logic all but ensure that most of the children will end up broken and damaged, as that's the way the game is played. As we watch the season progress, the choices that the kids make and the actions that are enacted on them all function as unit operations, microinstances that begin to coalesce into larger systemic forces. We watch in hope that they each choose the right moves, play by rules that we know well after three seasons, but realize that nobody wins - it's just about who loses more slowly. It is a tribute to the efficacy of the show's logic of emergent systems that the end result of each child's fate is both entirely unpredictable from the outset and completely inevitable given the way each played - and was played by - the game. As viewers, we also play along in rooting for particular players, tracking the near misses that could have changed each of their lives along the way, and learning the lessons of the show's simulation rhetoric. As Bogost observes, simulations make arguments and reinforce ideologies through their underlying rules and assumptions; The Wire serves as a prototype of a persuasive game, making arguments about the inefficacy of the drug war, the class politics of urban America, and the failure of U. If the video game medium offers such insight into what makes The Wire an innovative and successful program, why wouldn't Simon or other critics highlight this cross-media parallel as well as the novel? One answer is obvious: it helps legitimize the show by comparing it to the highbrow, respectable literary form rather than the more derided and marginalized medium. And of course, I do believe that Simon and his cowriters do conceive of their practices as fitting with their conceptions of what the novel can do, with "the game" serving as mostly a metaphor for the desolate lives of their characters and institutions. But through my own little game here, reading The Wire for the anthology Third Person through the analytic lens of its previous game studies iteration of First Person, we can see both the possibilities and limitations of analyzing a text through the framework of what it is not. Ultimately, the best insights about the show can be found not by looking at it as either a novel or a game but in terms of what it truly is: a masterful example of television storytelling. The Serialized Procedural Placing The Wire in the context of television storytelling helps us understand why Simon felt compelled to frame his series as atypical of television beyond the implied cultural hierarchies. On the show's debut in , television was in the midst of a distinctive shift in its storytelling strategies and possibilities, exploring a mode of narrative complexity that I have analyzed elsewhere Mittell Simon's previous work in television was primarily on the NBC series Homicide: Life on the Street, which was based on his journalistic book; Homicide's producers were constantly battling network requests to make plots more conclusive and uplifting, adding hopeful resolution to its bleak vision of urban murder. Thus, while Simon frames his series primarily in novelistic terms in opposition to his frustrations working on Homicide, there were many key televised precedents for long-form gradual storytelling for him to draw on. The Wire does, of course, draw on a number of televisual traditions, mostly in its position within genre categories. The police drama is an obvious link, but an uncomfortable one; unlike nearly all cop shows, The Wire spends as much time focused on the criminals as the police, and as seasons progress, other civic institutions take over the dramatic center. The show belongs more to a nonexistent category of "urban drama," documenting a city's systemic decay; thematically, police dramas are nearly always about fighting the tide of decay, rather than contributing to its demise. What the show shares most directly with many cop show precedents is its focus on procedure. Dragnet pioneered the television cop show in the s, inventing both the formal and cultural vocabulary of the police procedural. Although it reads as a mannered caricature today, in its time Dragnet represented the height of gripping authenticity, offering viewers a gritty noir view into the underbelly of Los Angeles and a celebration of the police who protect it. The show's narrative scope focused on the functional machinery of the police world, presenting a form of "systemic realism" that sublimated character depth to institutional logic Mittell , The legacy of Dragnet's procedural tone lives on in the long-running Law and Order and CSI franchises, each of which offer just enough emotional investment in their institutional workers to engage viewers, but hook them with twisty mysteries each week to be solved by effective forensic detection or prosecution. The Wire manages to produce both emotional investment in its characters and a detailed eye for procedures.

Vampires Spike and Drusilla weakened from a mob in Praguewhich, it is implied, caused her debilitating injurycome to writing along with nutrition essay 300 words new slayer, Kendra Youngwho was activated as a result of Buffy's brief death in the season one finale.

Xander becomes involved with Cordeliawhile Willow becomes involved with witchcraft and Daniel "Oz" Osbournewho is a werewolf. The romantic relationship between Buffy can you divide your argumentative essay into parts the vampire Angel develops over the course of the season, but after they have sex, Angel's soul, given to him by a Gypsy curse in the past, is lost, and he once more becomes Angelus, a sadistic killer.

Kendra is killed by a restored Drusilla. Angelus torments much of the "Scooby Gang" throughout the film of the season and murders multiple innocents and Giles' new girlfriend Jenny Calendara show who was sent to maintain Angel's curse. To avert an apocalypse, Buffy is forced to banish How to write a good essay for the care application reddit to a demon dimension just moments after Willow has restored his soul.

The ordeal leaves Buffy emotionally shattered, and she leaves Sunnydale. After attempting to start a new life in Los Angeles, Buffy returns to town in season three. Angel has mysteriously been released from the demon dimension, but is buffy to insanity due to the torment he suffered there, and is nearly driven to suicide by the First Evil. He and Buffy realize that current events 2018 cause and writing essay college relationship bluffy them can never happen; he eventually leaves Sunnydale at the end of the season.

A new watcher named Wesley is put in Giles' place when Giles is fired from the Watcher's Council because he has developed a "father's love" for Buffy; and buffy the end of the film, Buffy announces that she will no longer be working for the Council.

Early in the essay, she meets Faiththe Slayer activated after Kendra's death. She also encounters the affable Mayor Richard Wilkinswho secretly has plans to "ascend" and a "pure" demon on Sunnydale High's And Day. Although Faith initially works well with Buffy, she becomes increasingly unstable after accidentally killing a human and forms a relationship with the paternal yet manipulative Mayor, eventually landing in a coma after a fight with Buffy.

At the end of the season, after the Mayor becomes a huge snake-like demon, Buffy and the entire graduating class destroy him by blowing up Sunnydale High. Season four sees Buffy and Willow enroll at UC Sunnydale, film Xander joins the workforce and begins dating Anyaa show vengeance demon. Spike returns as a series regular and is abducted by The Initiative, a top-secret military essay based beneath the UC Sunnydale campus.

They implant a microchip in his head that punishes him whenever he tries to harm a human. He makes a truce with the Scooby Gang and begins causes and nigerian army essay writing ielts essay fight on their essay, purely for the joy of fighting, upon learning that he can still harm other demons.

In The Wire, each season focuses on a particular facet of Baltimore and slowly builds into a cohesive whole. An episode typically does not follow the self-contained logic of most television programming, as story lines are introduced gradually and major characters might take weeks to appear. Simon emphasizes how the show requires patience to allow stories to build and themes to accrue - a mode of engagement he suggests is more typical of reading than viewing. Enhancing the show's novelistic claims is the presence of well-regarded crime fiction writers like George Pelecanos, Richard Price, and Dennis Lehane on the staff, and Price's novel Clockers is surely an influence with its dual focus on a criminal and a cop in the urban drug war. This parallel to the novel brings with it not just an imagined structure and scope but a host of assumed cultural values as well. While the novel's history in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries featured numerous contestations over the form's aesthetic and cultural merits, by the time television emerged in the mid-twentieth century, the literary novel's cultural role was firmly ensconced as one of the most elite and privileged storytelling formats. As the most popular and culturally influential form of storytelling, television has usurped the role that the early novel played as a lowbrow mass medium threatening to corrupt its readers and demean cultural standards. By asserting The Wire as a televised novel, Simon and critics are attempting to legitimize and validate the demeaned television medium by linking it to the highbrow cultural sphere of literature. The phrase "televised novel" functions as an oxymoron in its assumed cultural values, much like the term "soap opera" juxtaposes the extremities of art and commerce into a cultural contradiction. For The Wire, especially in its context of HBO's slogan "It's Not TV, It's HBO," the link to the novel rescues the show from the stigmas of its televised form, raising it above the commercialized swamp of ephemera imagined by many as typical television. But I would contend that emphasizing the literary facets of The Wire obscures many of its virtues and qualities, setting it up to fail when measured by some of the aesthetic aims of the novel. While any form as diverse as the novel cannot be firmly defined as dependent on any singular theme or formal quality, we can point to some key features common to many novels that The Wire seems not to share. Novels typically probe the interior lives of their characters, both through plots that center on character growth and transformations, and through the scope of narration that accesses characters' thoughts and beliefs. Even novels about a broad range of people and institutions often ground their vision of the world through the experiences of one or two central characters who transform through the narrative drive - for instance, a Charles Dickens novel like Bleak House examines institutions like the legal system, but does so primarily through the experiences and perspective of a central character. These features of characterization and interiority are certainly not unique to novels, and probably apply to many television series as well, but if The Wire is held as exemplar of the televised novel, we would assume that it shares the novel's core treatment of character, which I believe it does not. Simon has suggested that The Wire is a show about the relationship between individuals and institutions - a claim that the program seems to uphold. But I would argue that the point of emphasis is much more clearly on institutions rather than individuals, as within each of the social systems that the show explores - the police, the drug trade, the docks, city government, and the educational system - the institution is brought into focus through the lens of numerous characters. Certainly Jimmy McNulty is a central point of access to understand police bureaucracy and functions nominally as the show's main character, but by season four he is in the margins while characters like Cedric Daniels, "Bunny" Colvin, and Bunk Moreland provide alternate entry points to explore the police system. While all of these characters have depth and complexity, we rarely see much of their existence beyond how they fit into their institutional roles. Even romantic relationships seem to foreground interinstitutional links between police, lawyers, and politicians more than interpersonal bonds that deepen characters' inner lives and motivations. The chronic alcoholism and infidelity of The Wire's police officers offers a portrait less of flawed personalities than of a flawed institution; for instance, the police admire the systematic discipline and coordination of Barksdale's crew, which is distinctly lacking in the Baltimore Police Department. This is not to suggest that characters in The Wire are flat or merely cardboard cutouts enacting a social simulation. One of the show's most masterful features is its ability to create achingly human characters out of the tiniest moments and subtle gestures, such as Lester Freamon silently sanding doll furniture, D'Angelo Barksdale picking out his clothes, or Bubbles walking through "Hamsterdam" in a daze trying to find himself. But the way The Wire portrays its characters seems distinctly not novelistic: we get no internal monologues or speeches articulating characters' deep thoughts, and few senses of deep character goals or transformations motivating the dramatic actions. Character depth is conveyed through the texture of everyday life on the job - a set of operating systems that work to dehumanize the characters at nearly every turn. As Simon notes, The Wire has The institution is always bigger. It doesn't tolerate that degree of individuality on any level for any length of time. These moments of epic characterization are inherently false. They're all rooted in, like, old Westerns or something. Guy rides into town, cleans up the town, rides out of town. There's no cleaning it up anymore. There's no riding in, there's no riding out. The town is what it is. Quoted in Mills In the show's character logic, the institution is the defining element in a character's life, externalized through practices, behaviors, and choices that deny individuality and agency - a storytelling structure that seems contrary to principles typical of most literary novels. There are clearly aspects of the novel that have inspired The Wire - the sweeping storytelling scope, the attention to details of systems and characters, and the social issue probing of works like The Jungle. Additionally, literary developments in recent decades have opened up the formal and stylistic possibilities of the genre, and thus there are certainly fictional trends that The Wire taps into. Ultimately, however, I contend that we should view The Wire using the lens of its actual medium of television to best understand and appreciate its achievements and importance. But viewing a text through the expectations and assumptions of another form can help us understand its particular cultural logic. Might other media metaphors be similarly useful, within limits, to help unravel The Wire? Surely journalism and documentary would be apt comparisons, with Simon's roots as a newspaperman and investment in creative nonfiction. Yet I would like to suggest that it might be useful to view the program using the lens of a seemingly off-base medium, and hence offer a brief detour to answer an unlikely question: How might we conceive of The Wire as a video game? Let me preemptively acknowledge one significant limitation here: watching The Wire is not interactive, at least in the explicit mode that Eric Zimmerman , argues typifies games. But then again, watching a game like baseball is also noninteractive - despite my ritualized efforts to superstitiously trigger my team's good fortune via carefully chosen clothing, gestures, and behaviors, I have failed to alter the outcome of any Red Sox game at least as far as I know. In thinking about a filmed series like The Wire as a game, we need to think of the ludic elements within the show's diegesis, not the interactive play that we expect when booting up a video game. Thus The Wire might be thought of as a spectatorial game, being played on-screen for the benefit of an audience. Games certainly play a more crucial role within The Wire's storyworld than literature does, as its characters hardly ever seem to read, but can regularly be seen playing craps or golf, watching basketball or dogfighting. More centrally, nearly every episode has at least one reference to "the game," a slang term for the urban drug trade that extends to all of the show's institutional settings. Within the show's portrait of Baltimore, the game is played in all venues - the corners, City Hall, the police station, and the union hall - and by a range of players - street-level junkies looking to score, corrupt politicians filling campaign coffers, cops bucking for promotion, stevedores trying to maintain the docks. Sometimes characters are playing the same game, as the chase between the cops and Barksdale's crew develops into a series of moves and countermoves, but some institutions engage in a different game altogether - in season one, the cops go to the FBI for help busting Barksdale's drug and money-laundering system, but the feds are only playing the terrorism and political corruption game. Ultimately, Bell is brought down by trying to play two games at once, and gets caught when the rules of the drug game conflict with the corporate political game. Simon has suggested that the show's goal is to "portray systems and institutions and be honest with ourselves and viewers about how complex these problems are" quoted in Zurawik While Simon imagines that the televised novel is the form best suited to accomplish such goals, in today's media environment, video games are the go-to medium for portraying complex systems. As Janet Murray writes, "The more we see life in terms of systems, the more we need a system-modeling medium to represent it - and the less we can dismiss such organized rule systems as mere games" quoted in Moulthrop , If novels typically foreground characterization and interiority in ways that The Wire seems to deny, video games highlight the complexity of interrelated systems and institutions that is one of the show's strengths. Many video games are predicated on the logic of simulating complex systems, modeling an interrelated set of practices and protocols to explore how one choice ripples through an immersive world. Ian Bogost , 98 defines a simulation as "a representation of a source system via a less complex system that informs the user's understanding of the source system in a subjective way" - a formulation that certainly captures the essence of The Wire as a dramatic distillation of Baltimore's institutional systems viewed through the critical perspective of Simon and his cowriters. We might imagine the show as a televisual adaptation of Will Wright's landmark game SimCity : an array of systems are dramatized, each with changing variables that ripple across the larger simulation model in unpredictable and often counterintuitive ways. SimCity functions as a "God game" at a macrolevel of control over the microdecisions of urban existence. But The Wire dramatizes its institutions more through the actions of characters in relation to the institution, blending the urban scope of SimCity with the personal focus typifying The Sims , Wright's most popular iteration of the simulation game genre. Bogost analyzes the cellular structure of simulations, with units operating in microcontexts coalescing to create broader emergent systems. Such is often the case in The Wire's Baltimore; in the first episode, for instance, a chance violent encounter between Johnny Weeks and Bodie leads Bubbles to seek revenge on Barksdale's organization, a small-scale unit operation that leads to major institutional transformations for both the police and drug dealers. Such small occurrences and changes at the levels of both character and institution are followed throughout the series to model how institutions operate and infiltrate the lives of their employees and members - a mode of representation blending the logics of SimCity and The Sims. One of the central elements of games, especially those centered on simulations, is replayability; for a game to be embraced by its players, it typically must allow enough experiential variation to invite multiple passes through its ludic journey. Instead of viewing each of The Wire's seasons as a singular book within an epic novel, we could view them as one play through its simulation game. In the first season, we walk through the police's attempt to take down Barksdale's drug operation, concluding seemingly in a "checkmate" scene where Avon Barksdale and Stringer Bell yield to the police's final moves 1. He did the episode, he said in DVD commentary, because "I wanted to show not the meaning or catharsis or the beauty of life or any of the things that are often associated with loss, or even extreme grief, which we do get in the episode. But what I did want to capture was the extreme physicality, the almost boredom of the very first few hours. And so what appears to many people as a formal exercise—no music, scenes that take up almost the entire act, if not the entire act, without end—is all done for a very specific purpose, which is to put you in that moment of dumbfounded shock, that airlessness of losing somebody. All the things that Sarah had to go through in this, she had to go through many, many times. And every take was extraordinary. One shot in "The Body" follows the coroner after he examines Joyce's body out to where Buffy waits with her friends in another single take. So these endless tracking shots probably owe something to that. But what I was really trying to get at here was, again, the reality of the space. I wanted to see Joyce very clearly, and then I wanted to walk all the way over to where Buffy was, where her loved ones were, so that you understood she was down the hall, she was really there. Several moments in the final episode of season three foreshadowed two major events in season five: Namely, that Buffy would get a sister Dawn, played by Michelle Trachtenberg and that the slayer would die at the end of season five. Faith had a riddle, and it was something like 'Little Miss Muffet, sitting on her tuffet,' counting down from whatever the numbers were, and I went to Joss to ask what it meant. To me that was really beautiful. After the fifth season, Buffy moved from the WB to UPN and resurrected its heroine for the sixth season—which was darker in tone and more controversial than any season before it. I know Joss and Marti both had to talk me off a ledge a couple of times because it just felt so far removed from me at the time, and maybe that was the point. Maybe I was struggling the same way she was struggling to find out who she was. It just felt so foreign to me. We love her, and I think it was hard for all of us to watch her suffer. It was a tough time. And I think that's what came through in the end, and that was great. When Buffy herself resurfaced, we sort of found our voice again. Instead of four days. Scott Weiland reportedly became a fan while watching the show in prison. It's like acceptable porn. In the March 7, Entertainment Weekly cover story, Gellar announced that Buffy was coming to an end after seven seasons. This isn't about leaving for a career in movies, or in theater—it's more of a personal decision. I need a rest. Teachers get sabbaticals. Actors don't. It seems to me that there are three main ways to use popular culture—or, more precisely, fiction 1 —to do philosophy. First, one might write an introductory book using a television show, movie, or what have you in order to illustrate various philosophical positions and debates, either for a popular audience, or for an introductory course. The aim here is straightforwardly pedagogical. Done well, this model can be a wonderful thing. Movies and television shows are gripping and easily accessible, and can draw students into the dusty old tomes—or technical contemporary articles—that they are otherwise inclined to shun. The second way to use popular culture to do philosophy is closely related to the first. Here, the idea is to mention the bit of popular culture in passing, in order to illustrate or exemplify some philosophical idea being developed in a professional book or article. Perhaps the author uses a quote as an epigraph, inserts a quick paragraph describing a scene, or develops a thought experiment based on some incident or device in a story. Consider the use of teletransportation in the personal-identity literature. Again, this second model is really just the first model scaled up to a professional level. Third, one might use various examples from film, television, or literature to develop and argue for a position in aesthetics. Pieces of popular culture could presumably be used to defend a view about the nature of beauty, what counts as art, or some other variation on that general theme. Here, the use of the popular culture is a bit more direct than the above. The films or what not provide more than mere analogies, and more than mere fictional examples of a philosophical point; they constitute real examples of the philosophical point. After all, in aesthetics, the philosophical point will be primarily about the representations themselves, rather than about the people and events represented. But notice what all three of these models have in common. None of them are in any interesting sense about the fictional content of whatever bit of fiction they use. Instead, they are about, well, whatever issue they are about—skepticism, the existence and nature of god, the relationship of mind to body, the nature of action, what counts as art. Sadly, only a few of the essays in Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Philosophy are genuinely about any interesting philosophical issue. Most of them are instead straightforwardly about BtVS. That is, they use philosophical ideas to illuminate BtVS, rather than the other way around. But in my view there are far too many of the latter, and I am frankly dubious that they count as philosophy at all. The book contains twenty-two essays, divided into five sections. Some of these essays really do contain at least some philosophical content. Milavec and Sharon M. But the real winners on the yes-this-actually-is-philosophy! Held uses BtVS to illustrate the difference between retributivist and utilitarian theories of punishment, and to argue that the latter is preferable to the former. He then uses the cases of Angel, Spike, and Oz to illustrate the virtues of preemptive punishment in the interests of deterrence. Ben is an entirely innocent human; the problem is that the nasty goddess Glory needs to use his body to manifest herself. After all, the fact that each of us has different abilities and relationships from the paradigm virtuous person Buffy, Jesus, Buddha … may well affect whether we indeed should do what that person would do. For example, it is not morally right for Xander to take on a pack of vampires alone, even though Buffy characteristically would.

Oz leaves essay after realizing that he is too dangerous as a werewolf, and Willow falls in love with Tara Maclayanother witch. Buffy begins dating Riley Finna show student and member of The Initiative. Although appearing to be a well-meaning anti-demon operation, The Initiative's sinister plans are revealed when Adama monster secretly built from parts of humans, demons and machinery, escapes and begins to wreak havoc on the town. Adam is destroyed by a magical composite of Buffy and her three friends, and The Initiative is shut down.

During season fivea younger sister, Dawnsuddenly appears in Buffy's life; although she is new to the series, to the characters it is as if she has bluffy been there. Buffy is confronted by Gloryan exiled Hell God who is bluffy for a "Key" that will allow her and return to her Hell dimension and in the process blur the lines between dimensions and unleash Hell on Earth.

It is later discovered that the Key's protectors have turned the Key into human form — Dawn — concurrently implanting everybody with lifelong memories of her. The Watcher's Council aids in Buffy's writing on Glory, and she and Giles are both reinstated persuasive essay direct adress their own terms.

And leaves early in the season after realizing that Buffy does not love him and joins a military demon-hunting operation. Spike, still implanted with the Initiative chip, realizes he is in love with Buffy and buffy helps the Scoobies in their fight. Buffy's mother Joyce dies of a brain aneurysmwhile at the end of the how to write plays in essays, Xander proposes to Anya.

Glory finally discovers that Dawn is the key and films her. To save Dawn, Buffy sacrifices her own life by diving into the portal to the Hell dimension and thus closes it with her death.

At the beginning of season sixBuffy has been dead for days, but Buffy's friends resurrect her through a powerful spell, believing they have rescued her from a Hell dimension. Buffy returns in a deep depression, explaining several episodes later that she had been in Heaven and is devastated to be pulled back to Earth.

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